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The Fiend attempted a Running Senton through an announce table but Rollins avoided, causing The Fiend to break an announce table.

The Fiend pushed Rollins, who fell through tables that were stacked on the floor. Rollins performed a superkick on The Fiend, who fell onto electrical equipment; this caused the equipment to briefly catch fire.

A spark incapacitated Rollins and The Fiend then appeared. The event received mixed to positive reviews. While the event as a whole was praised as a step-up from their previous shows in Saudi Arabia, [ citation needed ] Lesnar vs.

Strowman were generally panned. Strowman was notably negative. Cesaro and stating "While it is obvious WWE is pushing and putting over Mansoor due to the Saudi Arabia relationship, you cannot take away his effort.

Mansoor looked like a real-deal future superstar for WWE, and Cesaro did a tremendous job calling the entire match and putting the youngster over.

Strowman, stating that the first was "failing to let Velasquez get somewhat over was confusing" and that Fury vs. Strowman "was never going to be a good match, but Fury did well enough.

On one hand, you had quality bouts such as Mansoor vs. Cesaro, Team Hogan vs. Team Flair, the tag team gauntlet contest and AJ Styles vs.

Humberto Carrillo. But then you have to consider the other half of this show, which was filled with terrible matches that garnered the most hype going into them.

Most praise went to the tag team turmoil match, Mansoor vs. Cesaro and Styles vs. Carrillo, all of which he gave a score of 8 out of 10, but gave bad ratings to both Lesnar vs.

Strowman, calling them "[matches] that nobody except the WWE cared about". Velasquez and Fury being new to professional wrestling made their matches "more interesting" than previous WWE matches in Saudi Arabia, however they "just didn't click going into the show".

For the tag team turmoil match, Powell liked The O. Powell approved of The Fiend becoming champion, but disliked everything else about the main event, describing it as "horror movie campiness" which was "getting worse the more its repeated".

Tim Fiorvanti, Matt Wilansky and Marc Raimondi for ESPN wrote that The Fiend becoming champion overshadowed the "unsustainability" of his invincible character, Rollins being left "in no-man's land in terms of crowd reaction and momentum", and the main event having poor lighting and being too long.

The man match was "must-see" due to their team leaders Hogan and Flair, and was ultimately about "elevating Reigns, who has not had a significant storyline for months".

Fury "didn't look terrible" in his match, but Strowman failed to gain a "mainstream rub" and "didn't come across as a monster" at all.

Styles-Carrillo was "entertaining", but the live audience was not interested. Dave Meltzer of the Wrestling Observer Newsletter rated the matches of the event.

The next highest was the US title match at 2. The Universal title match was rated 2 stars. The lowest rated matches were Fury-Strowman at 0 stars, and Lesnar-Velasquez at -1 stars.

The women's match between Natalya and Lacey Evans was considered average in quality; although it was largely celebrated by WWE as groundbreaking, media outlets had polarized reactions.

Dave Meltzer wrote that although WWE claimed that "the match was a major cultural breakthrough" in Saudi Arabia, it was really "not a Sputnik Monroe situation which changed local culture".

This was because "many women performers have [already] been invited to Saudi Arabia", with the city of Riyadh's current promotion of sports and entertainment.

Regarding the match, Meltzer wrote that it was "very basic, by design", to avoid "anything that would be taken wrongly" - explaining why Evans did not play her usual character with "sexy" traits.

With "no heel or face or heat, and both not having noticeable ring costumes, it came across more like two women in a gym going through wrestling practice sequences".

And for that, I have to give it the utmost props". Not Evans, Natalya or the fans. The historic match was about and meant so much more. Conversely, Newsweek called the match part of "Crown Prince Mohammed bin Salman's [intent on] luring major sports event [ After Crown Jewel ended, it was reported that a flight back to the United States, carrying almost of WWE's wrestlers and other employees, had experienced a major delay on the tarmac.

WWE attributed the delay to "aircraft problems including mechanical issues", while the plane's owner, Atlas Air , stated that repairs would be made.

Meltzer quoted that the delayed WWE wrestlers were disbelieving of whether mechanical issues really occurred, because of the presence of military police and that it took around 24 hours before the WWE employees eventually left.

No, that never happened. My wife called me in a panic, she's scared to death. I go, 'Babe, listen, we're just not able to go anywhere. It is not a big issue, nobody has threatened to kill us.

Nobody was going to get murdered, it never happened. There was no threat of physical harm or anything like that. As the affected personnel would not be able to make it back in time for the following night's episode of Friday Night SmackDown in Buffalo, New York , the show was retooled to rely primarily on talent who did not participate at Crown Jewel, including the women's roster, and NXT which began developing an angle for Survivor Series by declaring war against SmackDown and Raw , [51] [52] while the WWE Championship match from Crown Jewel also the shortest match of the entire show was replayed in its entirety.

WWE announced on November 4, that it had "expanded" its partnership with the General Authority for Entertainment through , under which it would hold two "large-scale events" in the country per-year.

On the following night's SmackDown , Paul Heyman described Brock Lesnar's victory at Crown Jewel which was replayed in full at his request as being "spiritually orgasmic".

Heyman also announced that Lesnar had quit SmackDown and moved to Raw taking the WWE Championship with him , in order to seek revenge against Rey Mysterio for his actions following the match.

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Retrieved August 5, March 5, Retrieved March 7, Archived from the original PDF on CBS Sports.

Sky Sports. WWE Corporate. October 6, Retrieved October 6, Pro Wrestling Sheet. Retrieved September 28, Discovery Communications.

Archived from the original on March 6, Retrieved March 5, Archived from the original on March 19, Retrieved March 21, Archived from the original on May 26, Retrieved May 25, Cedric Alexander for the U.

Pro Wrestling Dot Net. Retrieved October 1, Retrieved October 14, Retrieved October 17, October 17, Retrieved October 19, Sin Cara".

Retrieved October 21, Shane McMahon in a career vs. Sasha Banks and Bayley". Retrieved October 4, Rusev, Tyson Fury's appearance". Retrieved October 8, Velasquez and Strowman vs.

Tyson Fury". Pro Wrestling Torch. Retrieved October 11, Charlotte Flair for the Smackdown Women's Championship".

Roman Reigns to determine which brand picks first, Charlotte Flair vs. Bayley for the Smackdown Women's Championship".

Additions to them may be made, but since medieval times the existing items are typically passed down unchanged as they symbolize the continuity of the monarchy.

Typical items in Europe include crowns , sceptres , orbs , swords , ceremonial maces , and rings , all usually in gold or silver-gilt and heavily decorated with precious and semi-precious gemstones , in styles which go back to the Middle Ages and are normally very conservative to emphasize the continuity of the monarchy.

Many working collections of Crown Jewels are kept in vaults or strongrooms when not in use and can be seen by the public.

The Crown Jewels of many former monarchies can also be seen in museums, and may still represent national cultural icons even for countries that are now republics, as for example in Hungary , where the Holy Crown of Hungary has been re-incorporated in the coat of arms of Hungary.

Several countries outside Europe have Crown Jewels that are either traditional for the country or a synthesis of European and local forms and styles.

Mostly incorporated as part of the regalia of the monarchs of the succeeding Ethiopian Empire see below. These holy drums were kept at special drum-sanctuaries throughout the country and were brought out for special ceremonies only.

One such place is in Gitega , location of the ibwami royal court. The jewels were largely provided by the emperor's political allies in France as part of that country's infamous Francafrique policy, much to the chagrin of many progressive elements both within and without the empire.

Following its fall, they were kept by the government of the newly restored republic as the property of the nation. The treasures of the Pharaohs can be seen in the Egyptian Museum in Cairo and in other museums throughout the world.

The principal crowns worn by Ethiopian emperors and empresses regnant are unique in that they are made to be worn over a turban.

They usually have the form of a cylinder of gold although some of the crowns at the Church of Our Lady Mary of Zion in Axum have the form of a gold cube with a convex dome on the top with usually some form of cross on a pedestal.

Some crowns also appear to have a semi-circular platform for additional ornaments attached to the lower front edge of the crown on two of the crowns of Menelik II these platforms each support a small gold statuette of St.

George fighting the dragon. Other parts of the Ethiopian regalia include a jewelled gold sword, a gold and ivory sceptre , a large gold orb with cross , a diamond studded ring, two gold filigreed lances of traditional Ethiopian form, and long scarlet robes heavily embroidered in gold.

Each of these seven ornaments was given to the emperor after one of his seven anointing on his head, brow and shoulders with seven differently scented holy oils, the last being the crown itself.

These imperial robes consist of a number of tunics and cloaks of scarlet cloth, heavily embroidered in gold, and including an elbow-length cape with a deeply scalloped edge fringed in gold the scallops on either side of the opening on the front being particularly long, giving them the appearance of a western priest's stole , and two large squares of scarlet cloth similarly heavily embroidered and fringed in gold attached to each shoulder.

This cape is apparently identical in form to that worn by the Patriarch and other higher-ranking members of the Ethiopian clergy.

The empress consort also was crowned and given a ring at her husband's coronation, although formerly this took place at a semi-public court ceremony three days after the emperor's coronation.

Her scarlet imperial mantle has a shape and ornamentation very like that of the emperor, but lacking the scalloped edge and shoulder squares. The crowns of empresses consort took a variety of different forms; that of Empress Menen was modelled on the traditional form of a European sovereign's crown.

Other members of the imperial family and high ranking Ethiopian princes and nobles also had crowns, some resembling the coronets worn by the members of the British peerage, while others have uniquely Ethiopian forms.

Traditionally Ethiopian emperors were crowned at the Church of Our Lady Mary of Zion in Axum, the site of the chapel in which is kept what is believed to be the Ark of the Covenant , in order to validate the new emperor's legitimacy by reinforcing his claim to descent from Menelik I , the son of King Solomon and the Queen of Sheba , who is believed to have brought the Ark from Jerusalem to Axum.

Their imperial crowns were afterwards frequently donated to the church and are kept in the church's treasury, [ citation needed ] although other monarchs have given their crowns and other regalia to various other churches.

The symbol of the power and authority of the Asantehene or sovereign ruler of the Ashanti , is the sacred Golden Stool , the Sika 'dwa.

It is used for the enthronement and symbolizes the very soul of the Ashanti as a people. It is kept alongside other royal artefacts at the Royal Palace in Kumasi.

The crown of the Malagasy sovereign was made in France for Ranavalona I. It is a large crown made from locally mined gold in c. In its essential form it followed the pattern of crown associated with a sovereign in European heraldry and had four arches which intersected at the top of the crown, while the circlet was made of openwork and set with precious stones and from the circlet between the arches were triangular leaf-like ornaments which also were set with precious stones pearls?

One of the two most distinctive features of the crown was a large fan-like ornament generally described as a representation of seven spearheads of the traditional Malagasy warrior's spear joined together at the base, but in photographs and paintings it looks more like seven large feathers.

The second distinctive feature is the representation of a falcon at the very top of the crown in the position a cross would occupy on the top of an orb in the traditional crown of a Christian sovereign.

The falcon is a traditional symbol of the Malagasy sovereign. This crown termed "the massive gold state crown" and many other royal artifacts were saved when the Rova of Antananarivo the royal palace and royal tomb complex burned on November 6, and are now kept in the Andafiavaratra Palace museum nearby.

Many of the rescued items have only recently been put on display. The Nigerian Royal Regalia is normally kept in the capital cities of the respective traditional states.

There are several kingdoms in Uganda. During the upheavals after gaining independence , the monarchies were abolished. Only in the s were the various kings restored to their thrones.

Although they do not wield any political powers anymore, they are still a symbol of unity and continuance to their people.

The royal regalia normally consisted of the Royal Drums, and are kept at the various palaces in the capital cities of the Ugandan states.

Ankole - Buganda - Bunyoro - Busoga - Toro. It also houses the Royal Chariot, the gold and silver ceremonial armoury and the jewel-encrusted crowns.

It bore a similar appearance to the one worn by the King of Thailand. The royal crown of Cambodia was last worn at the coronation of king Norodom Sihanouk in Numerous crowns, robes, jewels and headwear were made especially for coronations and other official events for each individual emperor rather than being passed down.

Aside from regalia of the British Raj , which exists primary as a part of the Crown Jewels of the United Kingdom, there are also surviving examples of the regalia of previous and other rulers of India, including some archaeological finds from ancient times.

These include extensive examples of regalia surviving from the various Princely States of India and Pakistan. The Imperial Crown Jewels of Iran alternatively known as the Imperial Crown Jewels of Persia includes several elaborate Crowns, 30 tiaras, numerous aigrettes , a dozen jewel laden swords and shields, a vast number of precious unset gemstones and numerous plates and other dining services cast in precious metals and encrusted with gems.

One significant item is a gemstone globe, collected, stolen and looted by the Iranian monarchy. However, in the early 20th century, the first Pahlavi Shah transferred ownership of the crown jewels to the state as part of a massive restructuring of the country's financial system.

Later in the s his son and successor, Mohammad Reza Pahlavi , decreed that the most spectacular of these items be put on public display at the Central Bank of Iran.

There have been a number of crown jewels present in Korea since ancient times, spanning from the ancient Gojoseon Dynasty to the last Joseon Dynasty.

Most of the regalia of these kingdoms, however, have been lost at various points in time, due to the successive rise and fall of the Korean dynasties and the subsequent and frequent raiding of Korean royal tombs and palaces by both Korean and foreign armies.

The surviving regalia derive mainly from the Silla , Gaya , Baekje and Joseon dynasties. The crowns of Silla are noted for their exquisite gold and jade workmanship, which resulted from the spread of goldsmithing technologies from Egypt and Mesopotamia to Korea via the Silk Road.

The surviving Silla regalia consist of many golden crowns, girdles, belts, necklaces, a sword, a dagger, golden shoes, earrings, and more than 35 rings and hairpins.

However, the Silla custom was that every king and queen had their own set of regalia, hence the regalia for each monarch was buried with them in their tombs, warranting the creation of many different regalia depending on personal preferences, contemporary fashion and available goldsmithing technology.

The Joseon dynasty regalia consist of formal jewel-encrusted wigs for the queen and everyday crowns encrusted with various precious gems.

The Baekje regalia are similar to the Silla regalia, but are even more arabesque and consist of magnificent girdles.

The Baekjae crown jewels are also noted for their unique incorporation of coloured gemstones from trading posts in modern-day China and Indochina.

During the period of the Great Korean Empire under Emperor Gojong, the imperial family commissioned many brooches, western-style diadems and tiaras to suit western-style clothes.

The enthronement ceremony is traditionally held in Kyoto. Other items can be seen in the old capital city of Mandalay.

The regalia is worn by the King ms: Yang di-Pertuan Agong , and the Queen Raja Permaisuri Agong during certain ceremonies, such as the election as head of state , the King's birthday, awards ceremonies, and the calling of parliament.

Malaysia is a federal state , consisting of thirteen states and two federal territories. Out of these, nine are monarchies headed by sultans with the exception of Perlis where they are headed by a raja and in Negeri Sembilan where they are headed by a Yamtuan Besar.

Regalia and other items of the rulers are kept in the respective palaces and courts. These are:. The collection also includes the They are kept, amongst other royal items, at the Grand Palace in Bangkok.

What happened to them after this is not known, but presumably they took them away, perhaps to Hanoi. In the former emperor became "Head of State" of the State of Vietnam , was not crowned, and was ousted by his Prime Minister Ngo Dinh Diem in a fraudulent referendum , and spent the rest of his life in exile.

The imperial palace was bombed, ransacked and almost completely destroyed. It is possible that the imperial insignia, if they had not been removed and taken elsewhere in , were lost or destroyed at this time.

For one example, see Golden hat. The oldest European crown jewels of monarchs are: the Iron Crown of Lombardy 9th century, now in Milan , the Imperial Regalia 10th century, now in Vienna , the Hungarian crown 10thth century, now in Budapest and the Bohemian Crown Jewels , now in Prague.

The crown of Skanderbeg , believed to have been created for the medieval king in the 15th century, was smuggled out of Albania by members of the Kastrioti family following the occupation of Albania by the Ottoman Empire.

The crown eventually found its way into the collections of the Habsburg dynasty via an Italian noble family and currently resides in the Imperial Treasury in Vienna , Austria.

In , King Zog I of Albania made a rare foreign tour and visited Vienna in an unsuccessful attempt to repatriate the crown, presumably for a future coronation he considered giving himself the regnal name "Skanderbeg III".

Several replicas exist in Albania, most notably at Kruja Castle. They are a collection of imperial regalia and jewels dating from the 10th century to the 19th.

They are one of the biggest and most important collection of royal objects still today, and reflect more than a thousand years of European history.

The treasury can be quantified into six important parts:. The most outstanding objects are the ancient crown of the Holy Roman Emperors and also the insignia of the much later hereditary Austrian emperors.

Made of carat gold and set with precious rubies, sapphires, emeralds, and pearls, the crown weighs g.

The crown has an unusual design, with vertical fleurs-de-lis standing at the front, back and sides. It was made for King Charles IV in Since it has been stored in St.

Vitus Cathedral of Prague Castle. The jewels have always played an important role as a symbol of Bohemian statehood. The sovereign's orb of the jewels is not the original.

It was commissioned during the Habsburg era to better fit with the other jewels. The original, plain gold, is kept in the Vienna treasury. The location of the regalia of the First and Second Bulgarian Empire is currently unknown.

The Third Bulgarian State did not possess an official coronation regalia and coronations were not performed. It is thought likely to have been lost during the Ottoman invasions of the Balkans in the 16th century.

The distinctive crown adorns several local flags in Croatia. The crown jewels and other royal regalia of Denmark are kept in Rosenborg Castle in Copenhagen.

However, the political situation changed before the new crown could be used in the coronation ceremony of Finland's first independent monarch.

By the end of , the uncrowned monarch had abdicated and Finland had adopted a new republican constitution. The crown which exists today was made by goldsmith Teuvo Ypyä in the s, based on the original drawings, and is kept in a museum in Kemi where it can be seen today.

The crown, which is made of gilt silver, consists of a circlet and cap decorated with the arms of the realm's provinces, in enamel.

Above the circlet are two arches. Topping the arches is not a globus cruciger like in most European crowns, but a lion rampant as on the coat of arms of Finland.

The inner circumference of the crown is approximately 58 centimeters and it weighs about 2 kilograms.

The Dukes of Brittany were crowned with a royal crown said to be that of the former kings of Brittany in a ceremony designed to emphasise the royal ancestry and sovereignty of the reigning duke.

He was a member of the ruling dynasty of France and heir to the French throne. He died in and was succeeded as dauphin by his brother Henry. Neither Henry nor any of his successors bothered to get crowned separately as Duke of Brittany but did use the title.

The location of the Breton crown is unknown but it is thought to have been moved to Paris at some point. It is most likely it was stolen and melted down during the reign of terror and the chaos of the French Revolution starting in The Dukes of Burgundy had a jewelled "Ducal Hat" rather than a formal crown which they wore for ceremonial occasions.

This hat was lost by Charles the Bold at the Battle of Grandson in when his army was routed and his baggage train was captured by the Swiss.

After the battle it came into the hands of the canton of Basle who hid it. Charles the Bold was killed at the Battle of Nancy the following year and the hat re-emerged to be sold first to the Fuggers in and then later to Maximilian I, Holy Roman Emperor.

What happened to the hat after this is not known. Presumably, after this it was kept for a while by successive emperors particularly Emperor Charles V who was also the Duke of Burgundy but at some point it was lost or broken up.

There is no information about any crown for Kartli-Kakheti predating although presumably there was one.

It is likely that the ancient crown or crowns, traditionally kept at Mtskheta , were lost in when Shah Agha Mohammed Khan of Persia invaded Kartli and ravaged the kingdom.

It was made in Russia and deviated from the traditional Georgian design. It was a closed crown or "corona clausa" made of gold and decorated with diamonds, 58 rubies, 24 emeralds and 16 amethysts.

It took the form of a circlet surmounted by ornaments and eight arches. A globe surmounted by a cross rested on the top of the crown.

Following the death of George XII in the crown was sent to Moscow and deposited in the Kremlin to prevent the coronation of any of his successors.

In it was presented to the National Museum of Georgia in Tbilisi but in it was once again sent back to Moscow where this time it was broken up or sold abroad.

The Crown of Imereti dating from the 12th century and believed to have been commissioned by David IV of Georgia was known to have been kept at the monastery at Gelati after the last king Solomon II was deposed in and Imereti occupied by Russia.

It is recorded as remaining there until at least after which it disappears from the record, presumably stolen or destroyed during the communist revolution , but perhaps hidden.

Grand Duke Karl II of Baden was the person to commission the grand ducal crown, although he died before its completion in The design of the crown follows the general pattern typical of a European royal crown, but is unique in that the circlet and the arches of the crown are made of gold fabric rather than of a precious metal such as gold or silver-gilt.

The precious stones which ornament this crown are in metal settings which are attached to this circlet and these arches much like brooches pinned to fabric.

At the intersection of the four arches of this crown is a blue enameled orb and a cross both set with diamonds. The cap on the inside of the crown is made of the same crimson velvet which also covers the reverse sides of the arches of the crown.

He restructured the many German states and the Duchy of Bavaria was promoted to a Kingdom. With his new status, the King ordered new regalia to be made, which included the The diamond's history dates back to the s and for the most part has been uneventful.

The gem was offered with other Bavarian Crown Jewels in a auction at Christie's in London, but apparently it did not sell, nor did it return to its display in Munich.

Rumours included one that the stone had been sold illegally in through a Munich jeweller and had reappeared in the Netherlands. Later research indicated that the gem had actually been sold in Belgium in and that it had changed hands again in In millions of visitors came to Brussels for the World Exhibition, which included the jewellery display which included a large blue diamond.

But no one was aware it was the missing Wittelsbach Diamond. In January Joseph Komkommer, a leading figure in the Belgian diamond industry, received a phone call asking him to look at an Old Mine cut diamond with a view of its recutting.

When he opened the package he found a dark blue diamond, which is among the rarest and most valuable of gems. Komkommer at once recognized that the diamond was one of historical significance and that it would be a tragedy to recut it.

With the assistance of his son, Jacques Komkommer, he identified the diamond as the 'lost' blue diamond.

The vendors were the trustees of an estate whose identity remained undisclosed. Finally, the Wittelsbach was acquired by private collector in It was announced in October the diamond would be offered for auction at Christie's in December.

Its original Golden Fleece ornament can be seen today in the Treasury of the Residenz Palace in Munich , a blue glass replica of the Wittelsbach in place of where the diamond was set.

See Schlosshotel Kronberg. The treasures of the Kings of Saxony are kept in Dresden. Aside from those items already present in Vienna, the last Holy Roman Emperor, Francis II , brought there much of the Imperial regalia traditionally located elsewhere, before the final collapse of the Holy Roman Empire in Other objects associated with the coronation of Holy Roman Emperors can be found in Aachen , in the treasury of the Aachen Cathedral.

The cathedral also houses a stone throne associated with Charlemagne , and was a traditional site for certain of the Imperial coronation ceremonies.

The Aachen City Hall houses copies of several important items of the Imperial regalia, now in Vienna, which had previously been kept in their city.

Both the old city hall and the core of the cathedral were once parts of the palace of Charlemagne. A new crown design was created for the new German empire, and used extensively in heraldic and other national emblems; however the actual crown itself was never constructed, aside from models.

Its use as a national emblem was discontinued after the collapse of the German monarchy in November ; examples of the design can still be found on various buildings and monuments from that era, including the Reichstag.

In practice, the crown jewels of the Kingdom of Prussia were used for the Emperors of Germany, with some new items being created.

A set of crown jewels were created for the first modern Greek king, Otto of Greece , but he never wore them and took them with him after fleeing the country.

His descendants later returned the regalia to Greece, but they were still never worn by any Greek monarch. Other remnants, or claimed remnants, of the regalia of the former Eastern Roman Empire, or items created in the Imperial workshops, can be found among the regalia of various European royal houses; having been dispersed at various times and in various ways.

Presumably, the bulk of the Imperial regalia found in Constantinople at the time of its conquest by the Ottoman Turks in , was absorbed into the treasury of the Turkish Sultan.

Examples of ancient-classical Greek regalia have been found among royal burial-goods in tombs at various archaeological sites. The most famous examples of which are probably certain of Heinrich Schleman's finds, artifacts of ancient Crete, and the burials of the Macedonian Dynasty.

No king of Hungary was regarded as having been truly legitimate without being crowned with it. The Hungarian coronation insignia consists of the Holy Crown, the sceptre, the orb, and the mantle.

Since the 12th century, kings have been crowned with the still extant crown. The orb has the coat-of-arms of Charles I of Hungary — ; the other insignia can be linked to Saint Stephen.

It was first called the Holy Crown in During the 14th century royal power came to be represented not simply by a crown, but by just one specific object: the Holy Crown.

Older pre-conquest items relevant to the ancient Gaelic dynasties that once ruled Ireland probably also existed. One example of this is an ancient relic called the Comerford or "Ikerrin" Crown that was discovered in but may have since been lost.

The coronation robe is kept in the Schatzkammer museum in Vienna , Austria. The Crown jewels of the Kingdom of Italy are in the custody of the Bank of Italy , due to legal controversy between the Italian Republic and the Savoia family.

It is not clear who is the legal owner. On being made Grand Duke of Tuscany Cosimo I de' Medici was granted the use of an open radial crown with a representation of the red Florentine fleurs-de-lis with its stamens posed between the petals in place of the ray in the front, completely covered with precious stones, by Pope Pius V , who specified that the circlet of this crown be engraved with an inscription that the crown had been granted him to wear by the Pope.

On the actual crown this inscription was placed on the back of the circlet, while the front was actually covered with precious stones like the rest of the crown.

A sceptre consisting of a gilt rod topped with a red-enameled globe topped in turn by a red-enameled Florentine Lily also formed part of the regalia of the Grand Dukes of Tuscany.

The coronation portrait of the Grand Duke Gian Gaston de' Medici shows the same Florentine grand ducal crown closed with the pearl set arches associated with sovereignty.

This crown was also used as the heraldic crown in the arms of the Grand Duchy of Tuscany. Of the imperial regalia of the Roman Emperors, previous to the Byzantine era, little remains.

The best-known examples, and those with the strongest claim to authenticity, are a sceptre, some fittings for Roman standards, and other small items, all from a cache buried on the Palatine Hill c.

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